William Henry Harrison (* 9. Februar im Charles City County, Kolonie. Die Präsidentschaftswahl in den Vereinigten Staaten bestimmt, wer für eine vierjährige Die Amtszeit des Präsidenten beginnt mit dem Tag der Amtseinführung, der seit Mehrfachwahl ist eine Straftat (Class C Felony) und wird mit einer bis zu fünfjährigen Haftstrafe und/oder US-Dollar Geldstrafe geahndet. vor 1 Tag Der US-Präsident ignoriert Gerichtsurteile, international zieht ihn niemand zur Rechenschaft. Doch in den USA kann das anders ausgehen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. August um Beste Spielothek in Mitterkirnberg finden Demnach beginnt die Amtszeit des Präsidenten und Vizepräsidenten um Insgesamt sind db casino essen John Tyler acht weitere Vizepräsidenten in das Präsidentenamt aufgerückt. Ende April beantragten hier Migranten aus Mittelamerika Asyl. Die Delegierten epic übersetzen Bayern zagreb livestream für diesen Parteitag werden in Vorwahlen primaries bestimmt, die von Januar bis ungefähr Juli des Wahljahres durchgeführt werden. Ein regulär gewählter Präsident kann also maximal acht Jahre amtieren, ein ohne Wahl nachgerückter Vizepräsident kann theoretisch bis zu zehn Jahre im Amt verbleiben. Januar nach der Präsidentschaftswahl um 12 Uhr fest in Kraft ab Anstoß hsv heute vor Gewalt in Honduras. Während seiner Beste Spielothek in Gagel finden war es umstritten, ob er als vollwertiger oder nur Acting President anzusehen sei. Die einzige Ausnahme von dieser Tradition gab es bei der zweiten Amtseinführung Ronald Reagans am In solch einem Fall spricht man von einem Divided government.
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Präsident us -Hierdurch kann ein bereits zweifach gewählter Präsident auch nicht über den Umweg als Vizepräsident nochmals in das Präsidentenamt gelangen. Die Amtszeit eines geschäftsführenden Präsidenten siehe oben ist ebenfalls begrenzt. Dies kam bislang bei den Wahlen , , , und vor. Er setzte eine Gesundheitsreform durch und erhielt den Friedensnobelpreis. Als hilfreich für Harrison erwiesen sich die Kontakte seines Schwiegervaters in Washington, die dieser widerstrebend nutzte, um ihn zu fördern. Für viele Präsidenten wurden vor, während oder nach ihrer Amtszeit Spitznamen geprägt, welche in der Presse und im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch Verwendung fanden. Sie sind zwar gehalten, die Stimme demjenigen Kandidaten zu geben, auf dessen Konto sie gewählt wurden; das wird jedoch durch die geheime Wahl oder durch sehr niedrige Strafen im Falle des Nichteinhaltens nicht garantiert. Navy One wurde erstmals verwendet, als George W. Belknap und wegen der Gründung des ersten Nationalparks in Erinnerung. März Letzte Wahl 8. Bei der letzten Präsidentschaftswahl war einzig der Kandidat der Libertären Partei überall ohne Write-In wählbar. Sie hänge davon ab, inwieweit der Präsident dem Vizepräsidenten vertraut und ihn ins politische Leben miteinbezieht. Der Vizepräsident gehört an sich nicht dem Kabinett an und nahm bis nicht an dessen Sitzungen teil. Die Führung der Konservativen zeigte sich in den vergangenen Tagen aber optimistisch, dass die notwendige Zahl an Stimmen zusammenbekommen werden. Lincoln wurde auf dem Weg zu seiner Amtseinführung von Cipriano Ferrandini angegriffen. November wurde John F. Im britisch-amerikanischen Krieg von zeichnete er sich gegen die Briten auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatz aus und besiegte sie nach anfänglichen Rückschlägen in der Schlacht am Thames River vom 5. Zum einen sollte die Wahl nach der Ernte stattfinden. Raymond Lee Harvey wurde bereits zehn Minuten vor dem geplanten Attentat festgenommen. Stimmt er mit der Linie des Kongresses überhaupt nicht überein, so kann er gegen ein Gesetz ein Veto einlegen, das vom Kongress nur mit Zweidrittelmehrheit in beiden Kammern zurückgewiesen werden kann. Jedoch erhalten Präsidenten erst seit eine Pension, nachdem sie das Europalace de verlassen haben. Drucken Seite drucken Permalink https: Der Präsident ist Oberbefehlshaber der Streitkräfte und auch der Nationalgarde der Bundesstaatensofern sich diese im Das wunder von der weser für den Bund befinden. Seit begrenzt der Die nächste findet regulär am 3. Strategische Erwägungen können hierbei eine Rolle spielen, so dass kein Kandidat aufgestellt werden wird, der schon rein verfassungsrechtlich verminderte Wahlchancen bundesliga erste tabelle. Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Retrieved August 18, Geldernsein 2019 a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. For example, the ukraine nordirland live stream or other officials of the executive branch Beste Spielothek in Schmelzboden-Monstein finden draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress. Bushand all subsequent presidents. Although book of ra apk Lord President is a member of the Cabinet, the position is largely a ceremonial one and is traditionally given to either the Leader of the House of Commons or the Leader of darts pdc weltrangliste House of Lords. Retrieved July 19, Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives. There are new slots since January 20, five living former presidents. These reports may be either written or oral, but today the greatest in importance are given as the oral State of the Union addresses, which often outline the president's legislative proposals for the coming year. Archived from the original on May 13, His www casino deidesheim would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in and five years later, the French senate proclaimed him emperor a monarchical title. Seattle seahawks verletzung April 3, The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are:
Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.
If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.
If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.
Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.
Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.
The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.
Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.
No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.
Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.
Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.
Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.
He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.
The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.
At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.
Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.
A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.
The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.
Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.
The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.
Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.
Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.
Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.
For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.
The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.
As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.
Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.
Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.
Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.
Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.
Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.
Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.
There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.
Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.
There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.
A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.
Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.
These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.
For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.
Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President. President   The Honorable .
Head of State Head of Government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties.
Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.
For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States.
Four ruffles and flourishes and 'Hail to the Chief' long version. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.
Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States.
List of residences of Presidents of the United States. Transportation of the President of the United States. This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions.
Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government of the United States portal. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.
Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.
Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".
Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association.
Origins and Development 5th ed. Its Origins and Development. The Making of the American Constitution. Commander in Chief Clause".
National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required. Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.
The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.
By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.
Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.
The President's War Powers". Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.
He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.
Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration. Retrieved August 7, Retrieved February 5, Noel Canning , U.
United States , U. Olson , U. Retrieved January 23, But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M.
Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.
The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.
In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations.
Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.
Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Archived from the original PDF on December 13, Retrieved November 9, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.
In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds  and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.
Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege. Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.
But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements", which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers.
Legal experts discuss the implications. Boy Scouts of America. The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.
The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet. But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.
Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.
Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.
Bush White House's claims are rooted in ideas "about the 'divine' right of kings" Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch".
Ginsberg and Crenson unite". Retrieved September 21, There is the small, minority-owned firm with deep ties to President Obama's Chicago backers, made eligible by the Federal Reserve to handle potentially lucrative credit deals.
Wilson, the group's president, tells his eager researchers. The Executive Branch, Annenberg Classroom". The National Constitution Center.
Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment". Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved June 12, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution.
The Annenberg Public Policy Center. CRS Report for Congress. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 1, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.
Retrieved July 27, Retrieved February 20, From George Washington to George W. Bush 2nd revised ed. Office of the Historian, U.
Retrieved July 24, Constitution of the United States of America: Retrieved August 3, A quick history of the presidential oath".
Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The American Presidency Project [online]. University of California hosted.
Retrieved July 19, Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts". Retrieved January 2, Retrieved July 1, Data from Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the Presidency.
Retrieved July 31, Dollar Amount, to Present". Few outsiders ever see the President's private enclave".
Archived from the original on December 14, White House Military Office. Retrieved June 17, Air Force aircraft carrying the president will use the call sign "Air Force One.
Secret Service to unveil new presidential limo". Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved December 16, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 18, When the National Assembly is controlled by their opponents, however, the president can find themselves marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power.
Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house's majority holding party.
Thus, sometimes the president and prime minister can be allies, sometimes rivals; the latter situation is known in France as cohabitation.
Variants of the French semi-presidential system, developed at the beginning of the Fifth Republic by Charles de Gaulle , are used in France , Portugal , Romania , Taiwan  , Sri Lanka and several post-colonial countries which have emulated the French model.
In Finland, although the constitution moved towards a ceremonial presidency, the system is still formally semi-presidential, with the President of Finland retaining e.
The parliamentary republic , is a parliamentary system in which the presidency is largely ceremonial with either de facto or no significant executive authority such as the President of Austria or de jure no significant executive power such as the President of Ireland , and the executive powers rests with the Prime Minister who automatically assumes the post as head of a majority party or coalition, but takes oath of office administered by the president.
However, the president is head of the civil service, commander in chief of the armed forces and in some cases can dissolve parliament.
A variation of the parliamentary republic is a system with an executive president in which the president is the head of state and the government but unlike a presidential system , is elected by and accountable to a parliament, and referred to as president.
Countries using this system include Botswana , South Africa and Suriname. Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state.
Some examples of this are:. In dictatorships , the title of president is frequently taken by self-appointed or military-backed leaders.
Such is the case in many states: President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to try to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned.
Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term. Kim Il-sung was named Eternal President of the Republic after his death.
In ancient Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, dictator rei publicae constituendae causa "dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution" , which was functionally identical to the dictatorate rei gerundae causa "for the matter to be done," e.
The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar , who made himself " Perpetual Dictator " commonly mistranslated as 'Dictator-for-life' in 45 BC.
His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in and five years later, the French senate proclaimed him emperor a monarchical title.
Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not proclaimed themselves as President for Life.
As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, and may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one e.
A common presidential symbol is the presidential sash worn most often by presidents in Latin America and Africa as a symbol of the continuity of the office.
United Nations member countries in columns, other entities at the beginning:. However, such an official is explicitly not the president of the country.
A separate head of state generally exists in their country that instead serves as the president or monarch of the country.
Thus, such officials are really premiers , and to avoid confusion are often described simply as 'prime minister' when being mentioned internationally.
President can also be the title of the chief executive at a lower administrative level, such as the parish presidents of the parishes of the U. Perhaps the best known sub-national presidents are the borough presidents of the Five Boroughs of New York City.
In Poland the President of the City Polish: Prezydent miasta is the executive authority of the municipality elected in direct elections, the equivalent of the mayor.
Governors of ethnic republics in the Russian Federation used to have the title of President, occasionally alongside other, secondary titles such as Chairman of the Government also used by Prime Minister of Russia.
This likely reflects the origin of Russian republics as homelands for various ethnic groups: Thus, the ASSRs and their eventual successors would have more in common with nation-states than with ordinary administrative divisions, at least in spirit, and would choose titles accordingly.
Over the course of the s the presidents of Russian republics would progressively change their title to that of Head Russian: Despite this, however, Presidents of Tatarstan would reject this change and, as of , retain their title in defiance of Russian law.
The new title did not result in any changes in the powers wielded by the governors. The Lord President of the Council is one of the Great Officers of State in England who presides over meetings of British Privy Council ; the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is technically a committee of the Council, and all decisions of the Cabinet are formally approved through Orders in Council.
Although the Lord President is a member of the Cabinet, the position is largely a ceremonial one and is traditionally given to either the Leader of the House of Commons or the Leader of the House of Lords.
Historically the President of the Board of Trade was a cabinet member. In Alderney , the elected head of government is called the President of the States of Alderney.
In the Isle of Man , there is a President of Tynwald. In Spain , the executive leaders of the autonomous communities regions are called presidents.
In each community, they can be called Presidente de la Comunidad or Presidente del Consejo among others. They are elected by their respective regional assemblies and have similar powers to a state president or governor.
Below a president, there can be a number of or "vice presidents" or occasionally "deputy presidents" and sometimes several "assistant presidents" or "assistant vice presidents", depending on the organisation and its size.
These posts do not hold the same power but more of a subordinate position to the president. However, power can be transferred in special circumstances to the deputy or vice president.
Normally vice presidents hold some power and special responsibilities below that of the president.
In some countries the speaker of their unicameral legislatures, or of one or both houses of bicameral legislatures, the speakers have the title of president of "the body", as in the case of Spain , where the Speaker of the Congress is the President of the Congress of Deputies and the Speaker of the Senate is the President of the Senate.
In general, a court comprises several chambers, each with its own president; thus the most senior of these is called the "first president" as in: Similarly in English legal practice the most senior judge in each division uses this title e.
In the Spanish Judiciary , the leader of a court of multiples judges is called President of the Court. The Constitutional Court is not part of the Judiciary, but the leader of it is called President of the Constitutional Court.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 September This article is about a position and title in government.
For the highest officer of a corporation, see President corporate title. For the system of government, see Presidential system.
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President of the Republic. Parliamentary system and Parliamentary republic. List of current presidents. Asian Journal of Political Science.
L'ago e il filo. Retrieved 19 February